Abstract: Modern synchrotron facilities allow nowadays non-destructive tomographic (3D) investigations at micron- and sub micron-scale routinely. Recently, latest developments in optics and detectors enabled to perform such investigations dynamically, i.e. with time resolutions up to a few tenth of tomograms (volumes) per second, and to sense structural orientations in multiple directions under sample conditioning. The presentation will review the instrumentation required for this kind of experiments at synchrotrons, in particular as developed at the TOMCAT beamline at the Swiss Light Source, and will discuss several applications in the field of materials, earth, pharmaceuticals and life sciences. The presentation will also discuss how far some of these methods can be transferred to conventional X-ray sources, i.e. made available to many labs worldwide.